The primary goal of the Viking I Program was to determine whether there was life on Mars. Its secondary mission was to map much of the planet's surface and provide detailed topographical information previously unavailable to scientists.
The Viking Lander
After the Viking Lander arrived on the planet's surface, the Viking I Orbiter continued its scheduled mapping program. On the fifth day, Viking sent back images from the Cydonia region of Mars. Within these images was the famous "Face on Mars." NASA issued a press release concerning the finding, calling it a natural formation and trick of light and shadow.